Reflexology is a systematic practice in which applying some pressure to any particular points on the feet and hands give impacts on the health of related parts of the body.1 Each point of the pressure acts as the sensors on the feet and hands and is links with different parts of body specifically.1 These sensors will be stimulated by applying the reflexology technique in order to improve the blood and energy circulation, give sense of relaxation, and maintain the homoeostasis.2 Reflexology session can be improved by other elements such as aromatherapy, peaceful music, and good environment settings.3 There is a term in reflexology called reflex zone therapy. Reflex zone therapy is where the body is divided into ten longitudinal zones from head to toe. In the reflex zone therapy, there are five zones on both sides of the body in which each zone diverge down the particular arm, and also continue straight down the body and down the particular leg to line up with a toe on the respective foot. Practitioners usually choose the suitable technique to be applied to the reflex zone therapy to gain optimized efficiency and impact. Reflexology is a complementary therapy instead of an alternative therapy to other treatments which patient already has based on reflexology maps.2 Complementary therapies nowadays are applied in many of palliative care or to alleviate a problem without dealing with the underlying cause in order to make patient's emotional, physiological, and spiritual health improve and increase the value of their life.4 Two methods of reflexology that have been accepted internationally are Ingham method and Rwo Shur method. The first method does not use any tools in its practice and the second method utilizes the use of tools such as a wooden stick.2 There are five theories that support how reflexology gives impacts to body health.5 First and second basic theories are related to energy. Energy theory advocates that body parts can communicate using electromagnetic fields and the communication can be blocked based on the surrounding respectively.6 Third and fourth theories indicate that energy flow can be restored and the fourth is about the pathway which is blocked can be opened.7 The last theory proposes that reflexology can break up the lactic acid crystal that usually deposited in the feet and allow energy to flow efficiently.5

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The significant difference in the two approaches is their effect on these layers. A Swedish technique uses lubricant to glide over the layers – whether that be on a superficial layer (light pressure) or a deeper layer (firm pressure). There may also be kneading of the muscles, vibration or percussion to stimulate the muscles, and passive and/or active joint movements. All of these techniques serve to increase circulation of blood and lymph, soften and relax the tissues, reduce cortisol levels in the body (the stress hormone), and provide a generalized sense of relaxation for the client.

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And you'll see, I am supporting the foot with my thumb on the other side. So, my thumb is moving to, you could actually move down between all of the metatarsal's here. Hook and back up, you're going to be using our thumb and you'll go into a point and then you press down and then you're going to have pull out just a little bit. It can be very deep. So, just be mindful and check in with your person, make sure you're not hurting them.

Another study compared the effects of foot reflexology, simple massage, and conversation on 130 patients who had undergone abdominal gynecologic surgery under full anesthesia. The patients were asked how they felt, and data were recorded on general condition, pain intensity, movement of the bowels, urination, and sleep, from the day before the operation until until the tenth day afterward. Simple massage turned out to be a relaxing, positive experience, whereas foot reflexology had various effects, some of which were negative. The researchers concluded that foot reflexology is not effective in acute, abdominal postsurgical situations in gynecology and can occasionally trigger abdominal pain [15].
Diabetes: 6 points specified. One of them: “Place your fingers 2 centimeters below the knee, as shown in the picture. Massage this area with a little pressure for 5 minutes every day. It balances the digestive system. Diabetes is said to begin with stomach fire and proper digestion can reduce this problem. You will immediately see the result. This method is also used to prevent aging, arthritis and other forms of weaknesses.”

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So what should runners book instead? Anna Gammal, a massage therapist who works with elite runners at the Boston Marathon each year and also massaged athletes at the 2004 and 2012 Olympics, recommends either a sports massage (i.e. targeted therapeutic treatment for the unique physical and biomechanical needs of athletes) or a myofascial release massage (i.e. the application of gentle, sustained pressure on soft tissue restrictions). Both specifically target muscle release and will help improve flexibility, reduce pain and increase range of motion.

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People do have clear pressure preferences: they often fire massage therapists who give treatments that are too painful or too fluffy. Pressure that’s fine for you may cause severe pain, emotional distress, “sensory injury” (sensitization) in others, or even physical injury, so pressure should be customized but often isn’t. Brutal massages might be appreciated or even helpful, but most people can’t tell the difference between the kind of pain that might be a necessary part of therapy, and ugly pain that is just abusive and dangerous.

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Reflexologists work from maps of predefined pressure points that are located on the hands and feet. These pressure points are reputed to connect directly through the nervous system and affect the bodily organs and glands. The reflexologist manipulates the pressure points according to specific techniques of reflexology therapy. By means of this touching therapy, any part of the body that is the source of pain, illness, or potential debility can be strengthened through the application of pressure at the respective foot or hand location.

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Carrying the weight of the world on your shoulders? Are your feet tired from the balancing act of life? This targeted massage concentrates on the areas that harbor stress and melt it away. A lingering head, neck and shoulder massage is followed by a tension-reducing foot massage using hot stones. Note: You will be on your back for this entire treatment.

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Deal with general aches and pains. An overall reflexology session can relieve general aches and pains. Most reflex points should be pressed for about 10 seconds at a time. Take your time and press all the reflex points on each one of your feet. Use light pressure and pay attention to any spot that feels sore or painful. When you experience discomfort in a reflex point, the corresponding organ or limb is out of balance.

Swedish massage therapy can be helpful with a number of other physical challenges, such as reduction in scar tissue by physically manipulating the fibers of the tissue, allowing the scar tissue to be successfully reabsorbed into the skin. Additionally, it can aid with lymphatic drainage, where the long strokes of the therapist help move fluids successfully out of clogged areas.

Did you know that the bottom of your feet could affect what's going on in other areas of your body? On each foot there are over 7,000 nerve endings called reflexes that correspond to every organ and system within your body. By pressing on these reflex points, you stimulate the nervous system and open energy pathways that may be blocked or congested.


Harriet Hall, MD also known as The SkepDoc, is a retired family physician who writes about pseudoscience and questionable medical practices. She received her BA and MD from the University of Washington, did her internship in the Air Force (the second female ever to do so),  and was the first female graduate of the Air Force family practice residency at Eglin Air Force Base. During a long career as an Air Force physician, she held various positions from flight surgeon to DBMS (Director of Base Medical Services) and did everything from delivering babies to taking the controls of a B-52. She retired with the rank of Colonel.  In 2008 she published her memoirs, Women Aren't Supposed to Fly.

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Practices resembling reflexology may have existed in previous historical periods. Similar practices have been documented in the histories of China and Egypt.[9] Reflexology was introduced to the United States in 1913 by William H. Fitzgerald, M.D. (1872–1942), an ear, nose, and throat specialist, and Edwin F. Bowers. Fitzgerald claimed that applying pressure had an anesthetic effect on other areas of the body.[16][17] It was modified in the 1930s and 1940s by Eunice D. Ingham (1889–1974), a nurse and physiotherapist.[18][19] Ingham claimed that the feet and hands were especially sensitive, and mapped the entire body into "reflexes" on the feet, renaming "zone therapy" reflexology.[20] "Modern reflexologists use Ingham's methods, or similar techniques developed by the reflexologist Laura Norman."[9]

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I am also a triathlon coach and personal trainer, so I mix and match my appointments every week in between massage sessions and coaching and training sessions with my clients. I typically have between five and eight massage sessions per day, four to five days per week. There are typically two sports massage sessions per day. Most massage sessions include corrective exercise review so the client knows what self-care they should perform.
Pedro is a graduate from The Florida School of Massage, one of the oldest schools in the country, where he learned a variety of techniques. He specializes in giving relief to chronically tight muscles, as well as clients who experience headaches and postural dysfunction. He is proficient in deep tissue, trigger points, and Swedish massage, favoring different stretches and myofascial techniques in his sessions to best facilitate a melt and soft release effect in muscle tissue, and support gentle structural shifts to the body's alignment. Pedro has experience working in chiropractic offices, salt room spas and as a mobile therapist. ... View Profile
Swedish massage is now gaining acceptance from the medical community as a complementary treatment. Studies have shown that massage can relax the body, decrease blood pressure and heart rate, and reduce stress and depression. It may also provide symptomatic relief for many chronic diseases. Many doctors now prescribe massage therapy as symptomatic treatment for headache , facial pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, arthritis, other chronic and acute conditions, stress, and athletic injuries. Many insurance companies now reimburse patients for prescribed massage therapy. As of 2000, however, Medicare and Medicaid do not pay for this form of alternative treatment.
In Australia, Melbourne Polytechnic offers reflexology course for the students and accredited with Diploma of Reflexology. In this course, students will learn the skills to assess and treat the body, supporting its search for natural balance and well-being. It also includes how to develop specific skills in reflexology techniques, learn to provide clients with basic dietary guidance, and learn the necessary health terminology about chronic disease. The qualification from this institute is valid for the membership of national organization such as the Reflexology Association of Australia and also can be used for further studies in complementary medicine.
Reflexology in Thailand is abundantly offered even at spas, centres, markets, and chair beside the street because it is widely known as one of the most relaxing therapies. Colorado School of Thai Massage offers a short course of reflexology about the fundamental practice of Thai Foot Reflexology. For those who are interested, no bodywork experience required to join this course.

Most deep tissue massages normally focus on major muscle groups — such as the neck or lower back — along with joints and tendons that are susceptible to straining or injuries. Certain areas of the body that tend to tense up in times of stress, including the shoulders, neck and hips, can often benefit the most from this type of deep manipulation. Many people consider “sports massages” to be a form of deep tissue massage, which involves physical treatment primarily to neuromusculoskeletal systems to treat pain and disability, improve muscle recovery and joint mobilization, and prevent injuries.

The findings by a recent study have confirmed the efficacy of reflexology by recording 31% of pain reduction among the patients with back pain. Quinn et al. reported that the pain intensity score decreased to an average extent in the experimental group.23 Poole et al. demonstrated that there was a significant difference between the control and experimental groups before and after the reflexology treatment.24
Inter- and intra-event massage is given between events or in time-outs to help athletes recover from the preceding activity, and prepare for the activity coming up. It is also short, and focuses on the major muscles stressed in the activity. Inter- and intra-event massage is given between events or in time-outs to help athletes recover from the preceding activity, and prepare for the activity coming up. It is also short, and focuses on the major muscles stressed in the activity. 
Although many assume Swedish massage comes from Sweden, Johan Georg Mezger (1838-1909), a Dutch man, is often credited with formalizing the system known as Swedish massage—sometimes referred to as “classic massage” in Europe. Mezger assigned French names— effleurage, petrissage, friction, and tapotement—to the specific strokes used in Swedish massage application. In English, these movements are known as stroking, kneading, rubbing (friction), and striking.
A healthier, more energetic, and more vibrant you will help in nearly every encounter, from the home to workplace. Regular Swedish massage can help you maintain greater emotional balance, a better functioning immune system, and a healthier lifestyle overall. Consider finding the right Swedish massage provider to add massage therapy to your self-care routine. This will help ensure that you can be the best caregiver for others when needed and may also help ensure your own needs are met, which is typically one goal of any self-care routine.

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Reflexology is an alternative therapeutic treatment based on the idea that areas of the feet, hands, and ears are connected to other areas of the body. According to reflexology, pressure applied to the right reflex points can correct problems with correlating body parts, organs and ones. For instance, a point on the arch of the foot may correspond with liver function. When pressure is applied to the reflex point on the foot, it will improve the liver functioning.

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A person receiving a deep tissue massage usually lays on the stomach or back in one position, while deep pressure is applied to targeted areas of the body by a trained massage therapist. The massage is beneficial mostly because it helps stimulate blood flow and relieve muscle tension, while at the same time lowering psychological stress and releasing “happy hormones” like serotonin and oxytocin.
An intimate couples massage will make a memorable birthday or anniversary gift for the person you love. Massage therapies for two are offered in several of Dallas’ best spas. From the Koffee Day Spa to the spa in the Riviera, couples massages are a mainstay on Dallas’ spa menus. Some of the best couples massages in Dallas are offered at the Green Lotus Spa & Retreat, Massage Felax, and Elite Massage.

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No. Bottom line, massage should never hurt if you don’t want it to. Some clients specifically say that they do not want to be in pain, and that should be respected. However, there are certain techniques that might cause discomfort. If the client and therapist communicate and agree on increased pressure, you can incorporate these deeper or more aggressive techniques into the massage. They can cause a little pain at the time, and a little bit of soreness the next day. I like to compare it to how you feel after a good workout. A good Massage Therapist will also be very skilled at warming and softening the tissue layer by layer to decrease the amount of pain felt by the client.
Swedish massage is now gaining acceptance from the medical community as a complementary treatment. Studies have shown that massage can relax the body, decrease blood pressure and heart rate, and reduce stress and depression. It may also provide symptomatic relief for many chronic diseases. Many doctors now prescribe massage therapy as symptomatic treatment for headache , facial pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, arthritis, other chronic and acute conditions, stress, and athletic injuries. Many insurance companies now reimburse patients for prescribed massage therapy. As of 2000, however, Medicare and Medicaid do not pay for this form of alternative treatment.
While a reflexologist can address specific conditions of the body, they cannot and should not attempt to diagnose disease. In fact, Bill Flocco, the Director of the American Academy of Reflexology, says it can be dangerous to use reflexology to diagnose a condition (see Reference section). This is because the reflex points on the body may already be strained or sore, and they, therefore, won't give a clear read of the body. This breakdown in response can be a result of regular wear rather than an issue with the body system that the point corresponds to.
Swedish massage is rooted in Western practices of anatomy and physiology. To perform this type of massage, licensed therapists apply an arsenal of pressure styles that include stroking, kneading, striking, rubbing, and vibrations. Using massage oil to help their strokes glide, they focus the pressure along the muscles that run the length of the body.
Deep tissue massages are usually “cross-grain,” moving against the muscles to relieve aches or pains rather than moving  with them. This can sometimes feel a bit more painful as a result compared to standard “relaxation massages.” However, the pressure involved in deep massages is actually a good thing. It provides many of the benefits that this type of therapeutic massage has to offer. Deep tissue massages also tend to be slower-paced and longer than many other massages, ideally about 1.5 hours long, which gives bodily tissue enough time to warm up and then relax.
Your massage therapist will require you to fill out a health history form. Afterwards the therapist will begin by asking you general questions to establish what areas you would like worked on, if there are any conditions needing to be addressed and to determine if massage is appropriate for you. Your massage therapist may perform certain assessments and testing to evaluate your condition, and to see if you have any presenting complaints.
Manipulative approaches to naturally treating pain and other health problems have been utilized for over 3,000 years, dating back to Ancient Egyptian and Chinese civilizations. Pressure massages were used to improve “Qi” (life force or energy), detox the body and promote better liver function — which today can be explained through the process of activating the lymphatic system.

The pressure used during a Swedish massage therapy help to relax the muscles and relieve all of the tension that has built up. The touch of the skin also helps to relax the person and to clear their mind of anything that might be bothering them. Therapists suggest a Swedish massage to anyone who is feeling run down or suffering from mild depression.
Reflexology careers have been gaining in popularity for the past 25 years and continue to grow today. With the current wellness boom in the United States, reflexology has earned a place at the forefront of alternative therapies for its effectiveness in reducing stress and relieving a number of common health problems, including chronic pain, allergies and digestive issues.
Deep tissue massage is a massage technique that’s mainly used to treat musculoskeletal issues, such as strains and sports injuries. It involves applying sustained pressure using slow, deep strokes to target the inner layers of your muscles and connective tissues. This helps to break up scar tissue that forms following an injury and reduce tension in muscle and tissue.

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Like having your feet worked on? The therapist uses finger pressure and techniques such as kneading and rubbing to promote relaxation and healing in the body. Reflexology is based on "reflex areas" on the hands and feet, whose energy is believed to be connected to organs and other body parts. By applying pressure to the reflex points, the reflexologist can balance your nervous system and stimulate endorphins, the body's natural pleasure response, which reduces stress and discomfort.
Sandals, shoe inserts, foot-massage devices and a steering wheel cover based on reflexology theory are being marketed. As far as I know, no such product has a plausible rationale or been scientifically tested. Any medical claims made for such devices would make them "medical devices" under the law and therefore illegal to market without FDA approval.

According to the American Massage Therapy Association, up to 25 percent of American adults had a massage at least once during 2016-2017. And, they have a wide range of reasons for doing so. More and more people -- especially baby boomers -- recognize the health benefits of massage. They choose from among many massage styles to get relief from symptoms or to heal injuries, to help with certain health conditions, and to promote overall wellness.

Many training programs are now available throughout the world that require a minimum of 500 hours of basic massage therapy training, in addition to continuing education credits that can require up to another 400–500 hours. (19) Always make sure you’re “in good hands” by first checking that a therapist has proper qualifications and experience, specifically asking about training in NMT, trigger point therapy, sports massage, pain management, myofascial release and orthopedic massage.


With no lotion or oil to cause sliding, it becomes possible to fully get a hold of the shortened fascia; this is necessary in order to lengthen it. Slow, sustained strokes are what can change this tissue from a short, hardened state to a lengthened, fluid state. The process is not unlike stretching salt water taffy. You’ve got to get a hold of it, warm it up, and work it very slowly. The work may sometimes be intense, eliciting moderate discomfort as old adhesions and chronic dysfunctional patterns are altered. But that leads to a much more fluid, easy sense in the body.
Beyond the feel-good effects of the treatment, the practice and purpose go deeper than the skin and muscles by taking specific reflex points on the foot to induce a healing response in corresponding organs and areas of the body, as seen in the chart to the left. Kneading the soft fleshy ball of the foot, pulling on the toes, tracing around the heel and pushing deep into the arch are just a few of the many small, intense movements you’ll experience during a reflexology treatment.
Interestingly, many patients and therapists swear by massage as a way to reduce constipation or digestive upset, since the increased circulatory benefits and relaxation of the abdominal and lower back muscles can help relieve symptoms. In fact, a 2014 study from the British journal Nursing Standard highlights a number of the ways abdominal massage encouraging muscle contraction, nudging the gut to move things along.
Somatoemotional release. Mental and emotional context is a major factor in how we experience pain. Painful sensations are unusually good at stimulating catharsis — the expression of strong or repressed emotion. — because physical pain often strongly “resonates” with emotional pain.12 For instance, the pain of an injury may blur together with the emotional frustrations of functional limits and rehab. That’s a basic example, and much more complex interactions between emotional and physical pain are obviously possible. Whether it is the clear goal of therapy, or simply a natural side benefit, experiencing very strong sensations can certainly be a meaningful part of a personal growth process “just” by changing your sense of yourself, how it feels to be in your skin, and perhaps bumping you out of some other sensory rut.13
While a reflexologist can address specific conditions of the body, they cannot and should not attempt to diagnose disease. In fact, Bill Flocco, the Director of the American Academy of Reflexology, says it can be dangerous to use reflexology to diagnose a condition (see Reference section). This is because the reflex points on the body may already be strained or sore, and they, therefore, won't give a clear read of the body. This breakdown in response can be a result of regular wear rather than an issue with the body system that the point corresponds to.

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The therapist may utilize some Swedish techniques to warm up the tissues (kneading, friction, percussion), softening the superficial layers so that he or she can access the deeper ones more easily. Then, with little or no lotion, the therapist utilizes the hard surfaces of their hands and arms — surfaces such as fingers, knuckles, forearms, and elbows — and employs a very slow, sustained type of stroke.
While a foot massage may feel the same as a reflexology treatment, a reflexologist will work on areas to promote a healing response in the corresponding organs. A massage therapist giving a foot massage will manipulate muscles and other soft tissues to improve circulation, relieve pain, and heal injuries in the area or to induce overall relaxation.

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